By Ulrich L. Rohde
Written for an viewers of RF microwave engineers and graduate-level scholars, this article covers vital elements of oscillator improvement: from basics, gadget & board expertise, provide noise, research equipment, layout, and optimization methodologies, to useful layout of varied unmarried and matched oscillators. With an emphasis on systematic composition of the total layout technique, chapters comprise transistor versions, large-signal S-parameters, resonator offerings, calculation & optimization of noise in oscillators, validation circuits for wideband resonator VCOs, and extra. vast appendices convey particular examples, calculations, designs, and CAD suggestions.
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Extra resources for Design of Modern Microwave Oscillators for Wireless Applications: Theory and Optimization
A perfect example is a binary-coded set of inductors which are switched by pin diodes or other types of switches and one or more tuning diodes. In some cases, a whole array of tuning diodes can be used. Figure 2-26 shows an example of an oscillator in which both inductors and capacitors are selected with diode switches and the emitter feedback can also be selected as needed. This approach can be found up to very high frequencies and is applied to integrated circuits. Figure 2-27 shows a 200– 400 MHz wideband VCO.
It is mentioned here only for completeness. The other two FETs of importance are members of the GaAs FET family and the family of BiCMOS transistors. Recent advances in technology have push the BiCMOS process close to 100 GHz if the BiCMOS transistor is built on SiGe technology. 1 GaAs FETs For the purpose of modeling GaAs FET, many models are available; the list is even longer if company or university internal models are added. The following models are popular with CAD tools: . . . Chalmers (Angelov) Model Curtice-Ettenberg Cubic Model Curtice Quadratic Model IAF (Berroth) Model ITT PFET and TFET Models 48 TRANSISTOR MODELS Figure 3-14 .
For validation purposes, an RF power ampliﬁer was built with these devices, in addition to comparing DC/IV curves and S-parameters. The other difﬁculty is that foundries make their manuals available only after signing a nondisclosure D n2 Cgb Rd Id Cgd Cbc Dbc n1 Rg G + Ig + Vds Idrain Rb n4 B Rds Ib - + Dds Vgs Cgs Rs Is Cbs Vbs n3 - Figure 3-21 S - Intrinsic model for an NMOS MOSFET.
Design of Modern Microwave Oscillators for Wireless Applications: Theory and Optimization by Ulrich L. Rohde