By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled approach of storing strength so one can strengthen the quantity of electrical cost produced. some time past, using reasonably cheap fabrication techniques reminiscent of complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been stored for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels less than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the rage of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF purposes maintains to upward thrust, it's crucial that passive units akin to varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a serious layout issue.Initially describing the actual phenomena that happen in passive units inside of average IC fabrication techniques, layout and Characterization of built-in Varactors for RF purposes is going on to:- current info at the layout of large band electric varactor types (up to five GHz) which allow the actual prediction of machine performance;- suggest a particular method for the dimension of built-in varactors, protecting on-wafer size buildings, the calibration approach, and distinct descriptions of the necessary equipment;- clarify de-embedding recommendations and in addition examine self assurance point and uncertainty associated with the try set-up;- learn the layout of a voltage managed oscillator (VCO) circuit as a realistic instance of the employment of equipment mentioned within the publication. offering the reader with the required technical wisdom for facing tough VCO designs, this e-book is a necessary consultant for working towards RF and microwave engineers engaged on the layout of digital units for built-in circuits. it's also an invaluable reference for postgraduate scholars and researchers attracted to digital layout for RF functions.
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Additional info for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
Most of the RF currents between the Pþ and Nþ islands flow along this Nþ layer, minimizing the resistive effect of the N well. 17 shows the effect of the buried layer on the RF currents. 4. As the capacitance is kept almost constant for each varactor, the presence of the buried layer avoids a high reduction in the quality. 4 Variation of the Size of the N Well Two varactors were designed to analyse the influence of the size of the N well: Var 26 and Var 27. In the former, the N well has a width of 1 mm and the latter of 2 mm.
By varying the voltage between the two terminals (G and D/S), the capacitance of the device changes in accordance with the operating voltage by which it is biased. This device makes use of the gate oxide as dielectric so that the device capacitance is dependent on the capacitance of the charge zone (CSi) and the capacitance of the oxide (Cox). The total capacitance of the device is given by: C ¼ C0 Á W Á L ð3:1Þ where C0 is the capacitance per unit of area, which is equal to (Svelto, 1999): C0 ¼ 1 1 þ Cox CSi À1 ð3:2Þ : The NMOS varactor is characterized by its asymmetric nature since the values of its parameters (capacitance and tuning range) vary if they are Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications and E.
When the size of the varactor increases, the quality is reduced drastically. The reason for this reduction is an increase in the size of the varactor that does not result in a proportional reduction of resistance owing to spurious effects and connections. Therefore, the quality is affected only by the increase in capacitance, with a consequent reduction in the quality factor. 3 Variation of the tuning range and quality with the length of the islands. 15 Variation in Q in accordance with the size of the varactor.
Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications by Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández