By Wilhelm A.M. Kulisch
This ebook offers with the deposition of a definite type of fabrics, specifically the diamond-like superhard fabrics, within the kind of skinny motion pictures. ranging from options used to enhance the hardness of a fabric, it truly is proven that the intrinsic hardness is maximum for fabrics with low bond lengths, excessive coordination numbers, and occasional ionicities. it truly is additional proven that such diamond-like fabrics (e.g. diamond, cubic boron nitride, tetrahedrically bonded carbon nitride) are distinctive through quite a few different designated and severe houses.
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Additional info for Deposition of diamond-like superhard materials
The films obtained so far possess neither the crystallinity nor the stoichiometry required for ~-C3N4. An important problem in this context is that - in contrast to the cases of diamond (natural and synthetic) and c-BN (HPHT material) - there is no bulk material to compare the deposited films with. Many properties of the hypothetical compound ~-CaN4 are still unknown. This implies difficulties concerning the characterization of the deposited carbon nitride films. 5 Organization of the Remainder of this Book 41 present there is no prescription for the identification of/~-CaNa of the kind that has been discussed above for the other superhard materials considered in this book.
The individual techniques are distinguished basically by the method used to provide gas phase temperatures as high as possible (filament, various plasmas and flames). 2. The substrate temperatures are, for all methods, typically between 700 and 1000~ 6. Working pressures are either in the range of 10 to 100 m b a r or at atmospheric pressure. g. 1-5%). 17 . 3. The growth rates are higher the higher the gas phase t e m p e r a t u r e (Fig. 1). 4. 1, last column); it lies between 10 and 100 k W h / c s.
R e f r a c t i v e I n d e x . 24) Here, nAB and mAB are the concentration of heteropolar pairs and their reduced mass, respectively; (2TO and (2LO are the frequencies of the transverse and longitudinal phonons in the center of the Brillouin zone. 25) where Ef is the width of the valence band. 19), with d-2"5; as a consequence, the refractive index of the purely covalent semiconductors increases with increasing bond length and thus correlates inversely with the hardness. 24). 3. 4 State of the Art 35 Conclusions.
Deposition of diamond-like superhard materials by Wilhelm A.M. Kulisch