By Jerry Y. Niederkorn (auth.), Thomas Reinhard, Frank Larkin (eds.)
The eight habitual volumes of the "Essentials in Ophthalmology" sequence hide the newest advancements in a single of 8 subspecialties in Ophthalmology. With 4 volumes released consistent with yr, every one subspecialty is newly visited each 24 months, with a unique specialise in fresh advancements. through bridging the space among unique study and clinical textbooks, the move of this constructing wisdom into day-by-day perform is significantly enhanced.
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Extra info for Cornea and External Eye Disease: Corneal Allotransplantation, Allergic Disease and Trachoma
Two important considerations in gene therapy are the vector and the transgene. 22 Vectors for Gene Therapy of the Cornea An extensive range of viral and nonviral vectors has been used in experimental corneal transplantation studies, but there is no consensus as to the usage of the optimal vector. However, viral vectors are being increasingly preferred by researchers in the field . The most widely used include recombinant adenoviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors. Our preference is for an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector, which integrates into genomic DNA and can rapidly produce stable transgene expression within the eye [37–40].
The preponderance of the indirect pathway of antigen presentation during corneal allograft rejection means that proteins involved in MHC Class II processing may be ideal therapeutic targets. APCs, such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells contain all the machinery to process and present antigen on MHC Class II molecules on their surface. Phagocytosed graft-derived antigen is degraded by proteases in intracellular endosomes within the first hour after uptake. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the peptide cleft of the MHC Class II dimer is occupied by an invariant chain protein, which later degrades to form a minimal CLIP protein.
Eﬀector Arm of the Allograft Response The effector arm of the immune response brings destructive cells and proteins into the donor cornea. Damage is mediated primarily through cellular mechanisms. Antibody plays little if any part in corneal graft rejection. CD4+ cells play a central role in the recruitment of a wide range of cells with destructive capability. These include macrophages, polymorphonuclear granulocytes, and NK cells via a range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa), and interferon gamma.
Cornea and External Eye Disease: Corneal Allotransplantation, Allergic Disease and Trachoma by Jerry Y. Niederkorn (auth.), Thomas Reinhard, Frank Larkin (eds.)