By James M. Douglas
This article explains the ideas in the back of procedure layout. It makes use of a case examine procedure, guiding readers via sensible layout difficulties, and referring again to those instances on the finish of every bankruptcy. all through, the writer makes use of shortcut strategies that permit engineers to procure the complete concentration for a layout in a truly brief interval (generally below days).
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Extra info for Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes
This steady-state ﬂux is approached even though the concentrations in the upper and lower compartments are changing with time. The approximations introduced by this assumption will be considered later. In this pseudosteady state, the ﬂux across the diaphragm is that given for membrane diffusion: ! Á DH À C1;lower À C1;upper j1 ¼ l Here, the quantity H includes the fraction of the diaphragm’s area that is available for diffusion. We next write an overall mass balance on the adjacent compartments: Vlower dC1,lower ¼ ÀAj1 dt Vupper dC1,upper ¼ þAj1 dt where A is the diaphragm’s area.
The analysis used here will be accurate when (Mills, Woolf, and Watts, 1968) 2 l =Deff 1 1 1) þ ¼ Vdiaphragm Vlower Vupper 1=ðbDeff Þ voids This type of ‘‘pseudosteady-state approximation’’ is common and underlies most mass transfer coefﬁcients discussed later in this book. The examples in this section show that diffusion across thin ﬁlms can be difﬁcult to understand. The difﬁculty does not derive from mathematical complexity; the calculation is easy and essentially unchanged. The simplicity of the mathematics is the reason why diffusion across thin ﬁlms tends to be discussed superﬁcially in mathematically oriented books.
Solution In this case, you are concerned with the diffusion of odor across the thin plastic ﬁlm. The diffusion rate is well described by either mass transfer or diffusion coefﬁcients. However, the diffusion model explicitly isolates the effect of the solubility of the smell in the ﬁlm, which dominates the transport. 2). In this case, the search was illegal. 3-9: Scale-up of wet scrubbers You want to use a wet scrubber to remove sulfur oxides from the ﬂue gas of a large power plant. A wet scrubber is essentially a large piece of pipe set on its end and ﬁlled with inert ceramic material.
Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes by James M. Douglas