By Roger Webber
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Extra resources for Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global Perspective, 2nd Edition
It can be similarly shown that even if this target is not reached, then the epidemic will be put off until a future date when the susceptible unvaccinated children will have grown older and therefore be able to cope with the infection better. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. 5 Investigating food- and water-borne epidemics Other epidemiological techniques are useful for investigating food- and water-borne epidemics, particularly case–control and cohort study methods. Case–control studies An example of the use of a case–control study in a cholera investigation is given where fish were suspected to contain the aetiological agent.
An example is pertussis (whooping cough). 3. Active components can be separated from organisms and vaccines made from these organisms. Good immunity is produced, but they are expensive to manufacture. An example is hepatitis B vaccine, which is a recombinant DNA or plasmaderived vaccine. 2004 5:40am Control Principles and Methods 4. Toxoids are detoxified bacterial exotoxins and are an important way of producing antibodies to bacterial toxins. They do not prevent the infection, but counteract the dangerous effects of the toxin.
In a propagated source epidemic, the agent is spread through serial transfer Common source epidemics Extended source Incidence Incidence Point source Time Time Incidence Propagated source epidemic Time Fig. 3. Epidemic types. 2004 6:50am 24 page 24 Chapter 2 from host to host. With a disease having a reasonably long incubation period, the initial peaks will be separated by the median incubation periods. Chickenpox (varicella) can start as an epidemic in one school; then mingling children will lead to transfer to another school, leading to a series of propagated epidemics.
Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global Perspective, 2nd Edition by Roger Webber