Chemistry Fundamentals Handbook - download pdf or read online

By Department of Energy

The Chemistry guide used to be constructed to aid nuclear facility working contractors in offering operators, upkeep team of workers, and the technical employees with the mandatory basics education to make sure a uncomplicated figuring out of chemistry. The guide contains details at the atomic constitution of subject; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions concerned with corrosion approaches; water chemist!*)' keep watch over, together with the foundations of water remedy; the dangers of chemical compounds and gases, and simple gaseous diffusion procedures. this knowledge will supply body of workers with a beginning for figuring out the chemical houses of fabrics and how those homes can impose barriers at the operation of apparatus and platforms.

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Metallic Bonds Another chemical bonding mechanism is the metallic bond. In the metallic bond, an atom achieves a more stable configuration by sharing the electrons in its outer shell with many other atoms. Metallic bonds prevail in elements in which the valence electrons are not tightly bound with the nucleus, namely metals, thus the name metallic bonding. In this type of bond, each atom in a metal crystal contributes all the electrons in its valence shell to all other atoms in the crystal. Another way of looking at this mechanism is to imagine that the valence electrons are not closely associated with individual atoms, but instead move around amongst the atoms within the crystal.

1. The Law of Conservation of Mass This law states that in a chemical reaction the total mass of the products equals the total mass of the reactants. Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist, discovered that when tin reacts with air in a closed vessel, the weight of the vessel and its contents is the same after the reaction as it was before. Scientists later discovered that whenever energy (heat, light, radiation) is liberated during a reaction, a very small change in mass does occur, but this change is insignificant in ordinary chemical reactions.

The more stable the resulting molecules are, the more likely these molecules are to form. For example, an atom that "needs" two electrons to completely fill the valence shell would rather react with another atom which must give up two electrons to satisfy its valence. Rev. 0 Page 23 CH-01 CHEMICAL BONDING DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 Fundamentals of Chemistry In the case of H+ + Br-, this is likely to take place because the exchange would satisfy the needs of both atoms. Although there is far more to consider than just the number of valence electrons, this is a good rule of thumb.

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Chemistry Fundamentals Handbook by Department of Energy

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