By Tadeusz Urbanski
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7 953, by H. Haferkamp and A. ) The amount of static energy recovered depends on the ratio of the diameters of the flow passage (d2/D2), the taper angle (o/2) of the diffuser, and the length (L) of straight pipe after the valve throat in terms of pipe diameter (d = valve throat diameter, and D = pipe diameter). 32 Valve Selection Handbook If the straight length of pipe after the valve throat > 12 D, the pressure loss cannot exceed the Borda-Carnot loss, which is: where vd = flow velocity in valve throat VD = flow velocity in pipeline This maximum pressure loss occurs if the taper angle (cc/2) of the diffuser > 30°.
2 |U,m Ra (125 [lin. Ra) may result in poor sealing performance, probably because of insufficient friction between gasket and flange faces to prevent lateral displacement of the gasket. A manufacturer's publication dealing with design criteria of spiral wound gaskets may be found in Reference 7. Fundamentals 19 Gasket Blowout Unconfined gaskets in flanged joints may blow out prior to leakage warning when inadequately designed. This mode of gasket failure will not occur if the friction force at the gasket faces exceeds the fluid force acting on the gasket in the radial direction, as expressed by the equation: where (X = friction factor F = gasket working load P = fluid gauge pressure t = gasket thickness dm = mean gasket diameter The joint begins to leak if: in which m = gasket factor w = gasket width The gasket factor is a measure of the sealing ability of the gasket, and defines the ratio of residual gasket stress to the fluid pressure at which leakage begins to develop.
However, other types of valves have also been adapted for the diversion of flow, in some cases by combining two or more valves that are suitably interlinked. Valves for Fluids with Solids in Suspension If the fluid carries solids in suspension, the valves best suited for this duty have a closure member that slides across the seat with a wiping 48 Valve Selection Handbook motion. Valves in which the closure member moves squarely on and off the seat may trap solids and are therefore suitable only for essentially clean fluids unless the seating material can embed trapped solids.
Chemistry and Technology of Explosives: by Tadeusz Urbanski