By V. N. Kondrat'Ev (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions
Experimental Methods for Studying Chemical Reaction Mechanisms Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Stages of Chemical Reactions In order to explain the mechanism of a chemical reaction and the nature of its individual elementary processes it is very important to con sider whether the reaction takes place completely in a homogeneous (gas) phase or whether heterogeneous factors have an influence on the course of the reaction. In the case of gas reactions this factor is usually the wall of the reaction vessel.
Coating the walls of the reaction vessel with potassium tetraborate K2B4O7 leads to retardation of the heterogeneous formaldehyde oxidation. Koval'skii's method is of especial interest from the point of view of studying the mechanism of heterogeneous catalytic reactions of gases. One modification of this method specially adapted for the study of reactions taking place in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst is characterized by the fact that two series of experiments are made : in the first, the catalyst in the form of a fine layer is applied to the wall of the reaction vessel and in the second, to the thermocouple capillary placed on the axis of the cylindrical reaction vessel.
C5H11—OH As Konovalov showed later , the accelerating action in this reaction is caused by the acetic acid. 22) at where x is the relative amount of amyl acetate decomposed and xo is the original (relative) concentration of acetic acid. A similar equation was obtained earlier by Ostwald  (1883) for the saponification of methyl acetate CH3COOCH3: O H3C—C \ O + H2O = H3C—C \ + CH3—OH. 22) was also obtained by Ostwald, by theoretical calculation . We assume that the reaction proceeds by two parallel independent routes, namely (i) a unimolecular conversion of the initial substance taking place with rate k±a(l— x) where k\ is the rate constant, a the original concentration of the initial substance, and x the concentration of the reaction product relative to a; and (ii) the interaction of the initial substance with the reaction product taking place at a rate k2d2x(l — x).
Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions by V. N. Kondrat'Ev (Auth.)