By M R Rixom,N P Mailvaganam,ebrary, Inc.
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Extra info for Chemical admixtures for concrete
8 shows the types and formulae of materials which have been reported to find application in the formulation of this type of water-reducing admixture. However, the only materials finding widescale application in formulations are the salts of gluconic and heptonic acids. html Page 11 Fig. 9 Normally, approximately 30% solutions of the salts would be used with additions of other chemical types, depending on the proposed function in concrete. Thus the salts may be present alone to produce normal waterreducing admixtures at low dosages and retarding water-reducing admixtures at higher dosages.
1. It can be seen, therefore, that only three chemical materials form the basis of all the water-reducing admixtures, i. e. lignosulfonate, hydroxycarboxylic acid, and hydroxylated polymers. 1 Lignosulfonates Lignin is a complex material which makes up approximately 20% of the composition of wood. During the process for the production of paper-making pulp from wood, a waste liquor is formed as a by-product containing a complex mixture of substances, including decomposition products of lignin and cellulose, sulfonation products of lignin, various carbohydrates (sugars) and free sulfurous acid or sulfates.
This non-dependence of mix design parameters on the effect of water-reducing admixtures is perhaps less surprising when it is considered that factors such as wetting and adsorption of aggregates, attrition between aggregate particles, and sufficient excess water to achieve the required slump, have already been taken into consideration during the developments of the initial mix design to produce the relevant workability. Therefore the effect of water-reducing admixtures is above and beyond these requirements and leads to approximately the same increase in slump across the initial slump range.
Chemical admixtures for concrete by M R Rixom,N P Mailvaganam,ebrary, Inc.