By Mohammed S. Razzaque, Takashi Taguchi
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Additional resources for Cellular Stress Responses In Renal Diseases (Contributions to Nephrology)
Since these chaperones are induced by ‘tonicity stress’ both in cultured renal medullary cells in vitro [66, 68, 69] and in the renal papilla in vivo after water deprivation [68, 70, 71], it seems likely that they exert significant biological functions in the hyperosmotic renal papilla. However, experimental evidence for a protective role against osmotic stress is available only for ␣B-crystallin, which protects glial cells from acute hypertonic stress . Signaling by Papillary Solutes and Regulation of Tonicity-Responsive Enhancer Binding Protein (TonEBP) Transcriptional Activator In general, the papillary concentrations of NaCl and urea change in parallel.
32] (2002) Lichtenfels et al. d. d. d. ϭ Not determined. *modification of HSP27. The major HSPs are mainly localized in the tubular epithelial cells in the kidney . Normal human kidney tissue exhibits a uniform granular cytoplasmic HSP72/73-specific staining of the visceral glomerula, epithelia of distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, but lacks expression in the proximal tubules . Moreover, induction of HSP72 expression was reported in renal tubular cells by stress conditions, such as heat shock, hyper-osmotic stress and exposure to hormones or cytotoxic agents.
Betaine is produced from choline via betaine aldehyde by the sequential action of choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. The oxidation of betaine aldehyde to betaine may be accomplished also by choline dehydrogenase [27, 28]. The proximal tubule, notably the pars recta of the proximal tubule, is the most prominent site of intrarenal betaine synthesis, although betaine production has been demonstrated also in the outer and inner medulla [27, 29, 30]. Betaine accumulated by medullary cells appears to stem mainly from the renal cortex; the contribution of extrarenal sources is minimal .
Cellular Stress Responses In Renal Diseases (Contributions to Nephrology) by Mohammed S. Razzaque, Takashi Taguchi