By Tansen Sen
Kinfolk among China and India underwent a dramatic transformation from Buddhist-dominated to commerce-centered exchanges within the 7th to 15th centuries. The unfolding of this modification, its explanations, and wider ramifications are tested during this masterful research of the altering styles of interplay among the 2 most vital cultural spheres in Asia.
Tansen Sen bargains a brand new point of view on Sino-Indian family in the course of the Tang dynasty (618-907), arguing that the interval is outstanding not just for non secular and diplomatic exchanges but in addition for the method in which China emerged as a middle of Buddhist studying, perform, and pilgrimage. earlier than the 7th century, the chinese language clergy--given the spatial hole among the sacred Buddhist global of India and the peripheral China--suffered from a "borderland complex." The emergence of China as a middle of Buddhism had profound implications on spiritual interactions among the 2 international locations and is pointed out by means of Sen as one of many major motives for the weakening of China's non secular appeal towards India. whilst, the expansion of indigenous chinese language Buddhist colleges and teachings retrenched the necessity for doctrinal enter from India. a close exam of the failure of Buddhist translations produced through the music dynasty (960-1279) demonstrates that those advancements have been chargeable for the unraveling of spiritual bonds among the 2 international locations and the termination of the Buddhist section of Sino-Indian kinfolk.
Sen proposes that adjustments in non secular interactions have been paralleled by way of adjustments in advertisement exchanges. for many of the 1st millennium, buying and selling actions among India and China have been heavily hooked up with and sustained during the transmission of Buddhist doctrines. The 11th and 12th centuries, notwithstanding, witnessed dramatic alterations within the styles and constitution of mercantile task among the 2 international locations. Secular bulk and comfort items changed Buddhist ritual goods, maritime channels changed the overland Silk street because the such a lot ecocnomic conduits of business alternate, and lots of of the retailers concerned have been fans of Islam instead of Buddhism. in addition, guidelines to motivate international alternate instituted via the chinese language govt and the Indian kingdoms contributed to the intensification of business task among the 2 international locations and remodeled the China-India buying and selling circuit right into a key phase of cross-continental trade.
Buddhism, international relations, and Trade brings a clean figuring out to cross-cultural Sino-Indian encounters, elucidating for the 1st time major alterations within the non secular, advertisement, and diplomatic interactions among the 2 nations.
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Extra resources for Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400
N o longer was India the source for the sinified Buddhist schools and doctrines of M i n g China. N o r did a predominately Brahmanical South India and the Islamic north retain potent Buddhist institutions that could attempt a resurrection of the past interactions. CHAPTER ONE Military Concerns and Spiritual Underpinnings of Tang-India Diplomacy The Arabs are the most powerful [force] in the Western Regions. , the Pamir Mountains) all the way to the western seas, their territory covers almost half the region under the heaven.
A t the same time, it will attempt to demonstrate the multifaceted, and often mul tilateral, nature of the interactions between India and C h i n a during the Tang period. The Establishment of Tang-Kanauj Diplomatic Ties Between 619 and 753, the courts of India and C h i n a are reported to have exchanged more than fifty embassies. While many of these missions were triggered by commercial motives, some also involved political and military agendas. Indeed, the emergence of powerful military states in almost every region of Asia in the seventh century not only resulted in periodic territorial conflicts but also necessitated the formation of strategic military alliances.
The Chinese clergy, as the chapter will demonstrate, employed various Buddhist paraphernalia and manipulated Buddhist texts and prophe cies i n order to transform C h i n a into a legitimate part of the Bud dhist world. The focus of this chapter will be on the veneration of the remains of the Buddha, the unveiling of M o u n t Wutai as the abode of bodhisattva Manjusri, and Empress Wu's (r. 690-705) attempt to portray herself as a righteous ruler of the Buddhist realm. The discussion of these issues will demonstrate that the intense SinoIndian exchanges during the Tang period were accompanied by the transformation of China into a sacred Buddhist land.
Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400 by Tansen Sen