By John R. Davis
Between 1848 and 1866 the Zollverein went via a chain of momentous crises and the problem of industrial association turned more and more politicized. Austro-Prussian competition, industrialization, and liberalism, created a demanding surroundings within which Britain had huge, immense impact. utilizing quite a lot of German and British resources this research exhibits how Britain, blindfolded by means of doctrinaire loose exchange and institutional inadequacy, didn't take hold of the connotations of its personal activities within the German states and the way misinterpretation started to bitter Anglo-German relations.
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Extra resources for Britain and the German Zollverein, 1848–66
British iron for rails was being imported into all the German ports, and was especially used in the coastal areas. 155 But the demand for iron also encouraged domestic producers. In the 1850s home industry increasingly satisfied the demand for wrought iron, meaning that the amounts imported fell off after the 1840s, with the market for British rails soon limited to the more coastal regions of Hanover and the eastern ports. Yet even here, the market for domestic manufacturers was strengthened by Hanover's union with the Zollverein in 1853.
There were several reasons for this: first, there was an increasing capacity for production of cloth in the Zollverein itself which began to compete with British manufactures, particularly in coarser, heavier materials. This was encouraged by the existence of the Zollverein tariff, 42 Britain and the German Zollverein which, because it was ordered by weight, was particularly prejudicial to heavier articles. By the 1850s, therefore, the Zollverein had developed a high level of self-sufficiency in the manufacture of ordinary cloth.
The markets for British coal lay almost exclusively north of the river Main, the cost of transport further south acting as a prohibitive tariff. While the relative cheapness of British coal to the coastal towns ensured its continuing dominance there, especially in the eastern ports, and some resistance was offered by virtue of the high quality of British coal, inland markets for British coal began to suffer greatly from the new competition, especially in the western Rhenish provinces, where British produce had also to compete with that of Belgium, but also in Magdeburg and Berlin, which were being increasingly supplied by Saxon and Westphalian coal.
Britain and the German Zollverein, 1848–66 by John R. Davis