By Dham Pal Singh
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Extra info for Breeding for resistance to diseases and insect pests
Nelson 1978) as resistance that reduces the apparent infection rate, which, however, can also be due to partial vertical resistance, and other forms of resis· tance. Ahn and Ou (1982) studied the epidemiological implications of the spectrum of resistance of rice blast. The infection efficiency (IE) and the infection rate (IR) of the spore population of Pyricularia oryzae was lower if the percentage of races to which each cultivar was resistant was high. It appears that cultivars with resistance to a high Types of Resistance 23 percentage of the races of the pathogen behaved as expected for "horizontal" or "general" resistance.
Twenty varieties of wheat possessing known Yr genes and their different combinations were tested against 13 races of stripe rust (P. striiformis West) both in seedling and adult plant stage. 178383 were effective both in seedling and adult plant stages. Varieties Chinese 166 (Yr 1) and Peko (Yr 6) appeared to have additional gene(s) effective in post seedling stage, besides the known Yr genes. Reactions of 32 genetic stocks and commercial varieties indicated that a number of genetic stocks exhibiting race-specific and non-race-specific type of resistances are available (Upadhyay and Kumar 1979).
Similarly, two cytoplasms ofinbreds GA 199 and CI 21 were prepared with the genome ofthe GA 199 inbred. P. Rao and Fleming 1980). The cytoplasms were classified for reaction to Drechslera turcica (H turcicum) the northern blight pathogen, based on a 1 to 5 visual rating scale. Results with CI 21 (A) genome indicated a highly significant difference between GA 199 and GT 112 cytoplasms. The GA 199 cytoplasm offered more tolerance than the GT 112 cytoplasm. A highly significant difference was also obtained between cytoplasms CI 21 and GA 199 with GA 199 nucleus.
Breeding for resistance to diseases and insect pests by Dham Pal Singh