By Jeffrey V. Ravetch (auth.), Max D. Cooper M.D., Toshiyuki Takai Ph.D., Jeffrey V. Ravetch M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)
A outstanding spectrum of novel immunoreceptors sharing comparable immunoglobulin-like domain names and signaling strength has been pointed out lately. those receptors have attracted common curiosity simply because they resemble the TCR, BCR, and FcR complexes of their skill to function activating or inhibitory receptors at the cells that endure them. additionally, they're good situated to impact either innate and adaptive immunity. the entire diversity of ligands for those new receptor households continues to be no longer identified, and knowing in their physiological roles is much from whole. This quantity is the 1st try to summarize and spotlight all identified facets of immunoglobulin-like receptors, supplying a topical evaluation of the jobs and attribute gains of the immunoglobulin-like receptors and comparable molecules within the immune procedure. Researchers in immunology, molecular biology, phone biology, scientific drugs, and pharmacology will locate this booklet invaluable.
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Extra info for Activating and Inhibitory Immunoglobulin-like Receptors
Natural killer; KIR, killer inhibitory receptor; MCMV. murine cytomegalovirus; ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif; mAb, monoclonal antibody ; LAK, IL-2-activated NK cell Mouse and human natural killer (NK) cells are regulated by parallel receptor systems. One of the first receptors to be characterized, Ly49A , was found to bind MHC class I molecules and inhibit the capacity of NK cells to kill their targets (Karlhofer et al. 1992). It is now clear that there is structural diversity in these receptors (Yokoyama 1998).
Despite their opposing membrane orientations, the inhibitory receptors mediate their effect s through a conserved signaling mechanism : Recruitment of the SHP-I tyrosine phosphatase to phosphorylated receptor immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs OTIMs) . SHP-I is thought to then dephosphorylate substrates that are involved in NK cell activation pathways. Multiple isoforms of either or both structural types of receptors may be expressed by a single NK cell. Importantly, studies to date indicate that the expression of such receptors is constitutive without significant alteration once the mature repertoire is established.
I . We also thank Dr. Shinsaku Togo for experimental help. This work was supported in part by Grants in Aids from the Japanese Ministries of Education, Health and Welfare, and EnvironmentAgency. 40 References Akira S, Isshiki H, Sugita T , Tanabe 0 , Kinoshita S, Nishio Y, Nakajima T , Hirano T , Kishimoto T (1990) A nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6) is a member of a C/EBP famil y. EMBO J 9: 1897-1906 Bagheri N, Chintalacharuvu SR , Emancipator SN (1997) Proinflammatory cytokines regulate FcaR expression by hum an mesangial cells in vitro .
Activating and Inhibitory Immunoglobulin-like Receptors by Jeffrey V. Ravetch (auth.), Max D. Cooper M.D., Toshiyuki Takai Ph.D., Jeffrey V. Ravetch M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)