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13. The resistivity of a silicon wafer at room temperature is 5 Ωcm. What is the doping density? Find all possible solutions. 14. 1 Ωcm. Make sure you include the doping dependence of the mobility. State your assumptions. 15. A piece of n-type silicon (Nd = 1017 cm-3) is uniformly illuminated with green light (λ = 550 nm) so that the power density in the material equals 1 mW/cm2. a) Calculate the generation rate of electron-hole pairs using an absorption coefficient of 104 cm-1. 1 ms. c) Calculate the electron and hole quasi-Fermi energies (relative to Ei) based on the excess densities obtained in (b).

Calculate the electron and hole density. 6a yields the same result. 7 Solution A piece of germanium doped with 1016 cm-3 shallow donors is illuminated with light generating 1015 cm-3 excess electrons and holes. Calculate the quasi-Fermi energies relative to the intrinsic energy and compare it to the Fermi energy in the absence of illumination. 0259 × ln = 161 meV ni 2 × 1013 which is very close to the quasi-Fermi energy of the majority carriers.

57 x 1018 Note that the effective density of states is temperature dependent and can be obtain from: T 3/2 N c (T ) = N c ( 300 K ) ( ) 300 where Nc(300 K) is the effective density of states at 300 K. 4b Solution Calculate the intrinsic carrier density in germanium, silicon and gallium arsenide at 300, 400, 500 and 600 K. 5 Solution Calculate the ionization energy for shallow donors and acceptors in germanium and silicon using the hydrogen-like model. 4 meV m0ε r2 16 2 The calculated ionization energies for donors and acceptors in germanium and silicon are provided below.

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Accurately measure flammable gases by Holkom B.

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