By Robert V. Giglia R.T., R.D.M.S., Kara L. Mayden R. T., R.D.M.S., Norbert Gleicher M. D. (auth.)
Real-time ultrasonography has entered place of work perform in obstetrics and gynecology. With expanding numbers of sonography platforms getting into the ambulatory workplace environment, obstetric sonography at a regimen point (level I) has principally been the distinctive region. fresh advancements in gynecologic real-time sonography have, even if, considerably enlarged the sector of applicability of sonographic apparatus in an workplace atmosphere. The very fast progress of follicular sonography in infertility evaluation and administration has made real-time sonography of accelerating significance to the gynecologic practitioner. In place of work settings just like the authors', gynecologic place of work sonography represents with regards to 50% of all ordered sonography. This guide of workplace sonography in obstetrics and gynecology was once conceived to mirror those adjustments in perform styles. This quantity isn't really intended to switch regular sonography texts for the full-time sonographer yet is as an alternative directed towards the practising obstetrician/gynecologist who makes use of real-time sonography within the workplace surroundings in the framework of day-by-day perform. Technical reviews have been as a result limited to a minimal, with useful recommendation and photographic examples taking their position. lots of the sonographic real-time photos have been retrieved from the authors' personal documents. despite the fact that, a few have been bought throughout the generosity of neighbors and co-workers, for which we want to increase acknowledgment and appreciation. comparable appreciation is prolonged to Dr. Haim Elrad and Dr. Jari Friberg, who additionally participated within the editorial method; to Sheila Martin, who played fantastically as our editorial assistant, a such a lot tough accountability; and to Hilary Evans, our editor at Plenum Publishing Corporation.
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Additional resources for A Practical Guide to Real-Time Office Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology
1. SECOND TRIMESTER AMNIOCENTESIS Longitudinal scan demonstrating the needle track (arrow) in the amniotic fluid during a second trimester amniocentesis. Placenta (P). FIG. 2. TENTING OF MEMBRANES DURING AMNIOCENTESIS Membranes can be seen to project into the amniotic cavity (arrow), preceding the needle tip (n). The placenta (p) is posterior. 1. FIRST TRIMESTER DATING • Sonographic estimation of gestational age is based on the last normal menstrual period (LNMP)-not the date of conception. • Gestational dating during the first trimester is based on the following parameters: 4-6 weeks Identification of a gestational sac without internal echoes (see Fig.
Left portal vein (open arrow). Portal sinus (arrow), spine (s), stomach (S), kidney (k). 3. The Fetal Stomach • Localization of the fetal stomach serves as a landmark for identifying the left side of the fetal abdomen, except in the situation of situs inversus (see Fig. 3). • Visualization of a normal fetal stomach at 20 weeks gestational age supports the presence of a normal fetal swallowing mechanism. • Failure to visualize the stomach may result from normal emptying of the stomach or fetal regurgitation.
Churchill Livingstone, 1985. 28 PART I • REAL-TIME SONOGRAPHY IN OBSTETRICS FIG. 1. THE FETAL ABDOMINAL AORTA AND OTHER MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS (A) Longitudinal sector scan of the upper abdomen demonstrating the entrance of the inferior vena cava (I) into the heart (h). Also noted are the ascending aorta (a) and fetal spine (S). (B) Longitudinal scan of the abdominal portion of the fetal aorta (a). The bifurcation (open arrow) into the iliac arteries is also noted. FIG. 2. FETAL ABDOMEN: TRANSVERSE AXIS (A) Transverse scan through the fetal abdomen delineating liver (L) and the gallbladder (arrow).
A Practical Guide to Real-Time Office Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology by Robert V. Giglia R.T., R.D.M.S., Kara L. Mayden R. T., R.D.M.S., Norbert Gleicher M. D. (auth.)