By Joseph J. Godfrey (auth.), Joseph J. Godfrey (eds.)
Few reference works in philosophy have articles on desire. Few are also systematic or large-scale philosophical stories of desire. wish is admitted to be very important in people's lives, yet as a subject for examine, wish has mostly been left to psychologists and theologians. For the main half philosophers deal with desire en passant. My objective is to stipulate a normal thought of desire, to discover its constitution, varieties, ambitions, reasonableness, and implications, and to track the consequences of this sort of concept for atheism or theism. What has been written is sort of disparate. a few see desire in an individualistic, usually existential, manner, and a few in a social and political method. wish is proposed via a few as primarily atheistic, and by means of others as incomprehensible outdoors of 1 or one other form of theism. Is it attainable to imagine continuously and while comprehensively in regards to the phenomenon of human hoping? Or is it a number of phenomena? How may well there be such different understandings of so primary a human event? On what rational foundation may perhaps humans vary over even if wish is associated with God? What I supply here's a systematic research, yet one labored out in discussion with Ernst Bloch, Immanuel Kant, and Gabriel Marcel. Ernst Bloch after all used to be a Marxist and formally an atheist, Gabriel Marcel a Christian theist, and Immanuel Kant was once a theist, yet now not in a standard way.
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Extra info for A Philosophy of Human Hope
Such blockage is more or less removable. The more insuperable it is, the more hope becomes desperation. But the more readily the blockage is swept aside, the more hope approaches confidence, optimism, assurance. I suppose it is acceptable to use the word "hope" when the hoped-for is a sure thing. ) It does seem, however, that hope is more properly found where the future is veiled, and where the present contains elements set to thwart movement toward the goal. So, while "hope" may be used to title the attitude of confident expectation, or the attitude of trapped desperation, I think it more suitably fits a sort of middle ground, one where I am in bondage, yet glimpse a way out.
H. Maslow is very helpful in this area, not in the least because his writing gathers many other researches into the kinds of human needs and desires. lo He gathers human needs into several categories: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, selfactualization needs, cognitive needs, and aesthetic needs. The accuracy and comprehensiveness of the list is not as important as his point that when the needs occurring earliest on the list are not met in some basic way, such needs become the prime desire of the subject.
38. 21 organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency," such that the first or lower must be to some degree satisfied before the higher appear. Yet the order shifts: certain levels in the hierarchy may, in some people, be reversed; others disappear, as in cases of severe economic or psychological deprivation. Further, there are some people who, for the sake of higher values, can sacrifice fulfillment on many other levels, and this especially if basic needs have been gratified in the early years of life.
A Philosophy of Human Hope by Joseph J. Godfrey (auth.), Joseph J. Godfrey (eds.)