New PDF release: A personal view of APL

By Iverson K.E.

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B) Axial bright blood cine image of the same secundum septal defect. There is mild right ventricular enlargement. 7 Atrial septal defect – MRI. MR phasecontrast (velocity-encoding) techniques can be used to measure flow across a vessel or valve of interest. 5 : 1. (A) Planes of flow image acquisition perpendicular to the direction of flow in the main pulmonary artery (MPA; yellow) and ascending aorta (AAo; pink). 9 : 1. Qp ¼ pulmonary blood flow; Qs ¼ systemic blood flow (or cardiac output). 800 of secundum ASDs between 3 and 8 mm will close spontaneously.

The main stem bronchi. The aortic knob is typically small. 13). 14). 15). 16). Natural history of VSDs VSDs can range from small, resulting in hemodynamically insignificant shunt, to large, resulting in congestive heart failure in infancy and pulmonary arterial hypertension if left unrepaired. Spontaneous closure occurs in 30–40% of patients with muscular and membranous VSDs during the first year of life. This obviously occurs more commonly in small defects. Inlet and outlet defects do not close spontaneously.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 162, 1399–1406. Walsh E, Cramer B, Pushpanthan C (1990) Pancreatic echogenicity in premature and newborn infants. Pediatr Radiol 20, 323. Wittenborg MH, Gyepes MT, Crocker D (1976) Tracheal dynamics in infants with respiratory distress, stridor and collapsing trachea. Radiology 88, 653–62. Taccone A, Oddone M, Occhi M et al. (1995) MRI “road-map” of normal age-related bone marrow. I. Cranial bone and spine. Pediatr Radiol 25, 588–95. Wolf S, Schneble F, Troger J (1992) The conus medullaris: time of ascendence to normal level.

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A personal view of APL by Iverson K.E.


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