By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive info expense instant purposes at millimeter wave frequencies as a rule and 60 GHz particularly have won a lot awareness lately. in spite of the fact that, demanding situations relating to circuit, structure and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout need to be triumph over prior to they could develop into potential for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops targeting phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes ideas for them. The procedure point layout to circuit point implementation of the entire PLL, in addition to separate implementations of person parts comparable to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their combos, are integrated. additionally, to meet a couple of transceiver topologies at the same time, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency parts on the comparable time.
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Extra info for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
5 dB better phase noise than the VCO. The envisioned dual-mode prescaler is expected to cover the locking range of both divide-by-2 and divide-by-3 prescalers based on the input frequency. 6 GHz <À100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz 127–141 190–212 19–21 GHz $300 MHz $300 MHz Zero comparison with the reference frequency in the phase frequency detector. 5. 7 Summary This chapter lays down the foundation for circuit design of the synthesizer in subsequent chapters. 3c is discussed in detail. The frequency channelization proposals of this standard include 2 GHz HRP channels for data intensive applications such as live video streaming and downloads and 1 GHz and 500 MHz LRP channels for moderate and low data rate applications, respectively.
4a). The VCO output which needs to be measured by using a bond-pad is unavoidably long, so transmission lines whose impedance can be well controlled is employed for such connections. 1 Layout Problems and Solutions 41 There are a number of prescaler circuits possible for mm-wave synthesizers, one of which is based on injection locking (discussed in Chapter 4). Such a prescaler requires at least one inductor for a non-quadrature output and two for quadrature outputs. The former case is depicted in Fig.
Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS) provides an adequate tool-box for PLL related simulations. The loop’s AC response to extract stability information like phase margin, dynamic behavior to obtain settling time, and noise performance are all possible using this tool. A basic simulation environment is depicted in Fig. 11. The LPF block is custom-made based on the second order loop filter equations. The divider is used to step the division ratio and VCO output is demodulated using the FM_Demod block to obtain the settling time results.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund